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The "SHEF" magazine has published the article "Waiting for Breakthrough" which deals with vegetable growing directions of development of in the protected soil of Russia. Tamara V. Reshetnikova, the CEO of "Growth Technology" research company, acts as an expert of greenhouse industry.
With imposition of sanctions, aimed at restriction of crop production import from foreign states, a question of import substitution of certain types of produce, raising of production of vegetables, potatoes, fruits and berries arose. The increase in production of protected soil vegetables is one of the ways to solve the problem of food security in Russia.
Every year about 1500 thousand tons of off-season vegetables and verdure, including about 800 thousand tons of tomatoes and 200 thousand tons of cucumbers, are imported to the Russian Federation. As for Russian agricultural organizations' greenhouses and farms, last year they grew 728 thousand tons of vegetables and verdure. The ratio of the own production is about 35%, which is considered as very low. Meanwhile the consumer demand for off-season fresh vegetables and verdure steadily grows despite the fact that in 2015 its growth rate has sharply decreased because of the decline in purchasing power of the population of the country.
Condition of greenhouses in the Russian Federation is very different. About 60% of the operating greenhouses still use the equipment, constructions and technologies of the time when they were constructed (60-70s). Houses made of glass and concrete, growing in soil, manual regulation of temperature and humidity, one or two plant cultivations.
As for tendencies, now block greenhouses of the 4th generation like Venlo and the greenhouses of the 5th generation like Ultra Clima, with the corresponding equipment and the complete interconnected systems are actual now: automated microclimate control, drop watering, multicircuit heating, filters, own gas generator.
Only the small-volume cultivation technology of soil substitutes like minvata, coconut flakes, agroperlite, other inert environments is used. Use of the hybrids of modern selection which are intended for winter greenhouses and concrete growing cultivation is very important. Almost all new projects choose these constructions and technologies.
Opinion of the expert
Tamara RESHETNIKOVA, CEO of the "Growth Technology" research company:
- In fact, modern greenhouses are a high-tech type of production aimed at achieving high rates of productivity which generally determine profitability level. Thу more return on 1 square meter of the protected soil, the more effectiveness and profitability of business.
In Holland, which is the main Russian supplier of greenhouse design, equipment, technologies and seeds, modern greenhouses work at level of 100 - 130 kg/sq.m of vegetables a year. In Russia in 2014 average productivity made about 36 kg with 1 sq.m. Average profitability of all operating greenhouse complexes in Russia is about 13%. Thus the leading greenhouses, which exploit new greenhouse designs of the 4th and 5th generation and use modern protected soilagricultural technology including photoculture, reach yeild of a cucumbers of 130 kg/sq.m a year on separate areas.
In "Maysky" greenhouse in TatarstanIn profitability of new greenhouses with photoculture exceeded 26% in 2014. Profitability of Novosibirsky greenhouse was 40% with photoculture. Profitability of new greenhouses of "Oldeevskaya" agrofirm in Chuvashia was about 37% and profitability of old greenhouses - only 8%.
As for expenses, the main share belongs to the expenses on energy resources and wage fund. The old greenhouses, which don't apply energy saving technologies and equipment, just can't compete with modern projects on product costs and, respectively, profitability, . The difference in costs of 1 kg of vegetables can reach 100%.
Author of the article: Nadezhda Bredikhina
You can find the full text in June issue of the "SHEF" magazine.
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